Frequently Asked Questions

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What is ’Phishing’?

In computing, phishing is an attempt to criminally and fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. eBay, PayPal and online banks are common targets. Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail or instant messaging, and often directs users to enter details at a website, although phone contact has also been used. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to fool users. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical measures.

What is ’e-mail Spoofing’?

E-mail spoofing is a term used to describe fraudulent e-mail activity in which the sender address and other parts of the e-mail header are altered to appear as though the e-mail originated from a different source. E-mail spoofing is a technique commonly used for spam e-mail and phishing to hide the origin of an e-mail message. By changing certain properties of the e-mail, such as the From, Return-Path and Reply-To fields (which can be found in the message header), ill-intentioned users can make the e-mail appear to be from someone other than the actual sender. It is often associated with website spoofing which mimics an actual, well-known website but are run by another party either with fraudulent intentions or as a means of criticism of the organisation’s activities. The result is that, although the e-mail appears to come from the e-mail indicated in the "From" field (found in the e-mail headers) it actually comes from another e-mail address, probably the same one indicated in the "Reply to" field; if the initial e-mail is replied to, the delivery will be sent to the "Reply to" e-mail, that is, to the spammer’s email.

What is a ’Cookie’?

HTTP cookies, or more commonly referred to as Web cookies, tracking cookies or just cookies, are parcels of text sent by a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server. HTTP cookies are used for authenticating, tracking, and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences or the contents of their electronic shopping baskets. The term "cookie" is derived from "magic cookie," a well-known concept in UNIX computing which inspired both the idea and the name of HTTP cookies.

Cookies are also subject to a number of misconceptions, mostly based on the erroneous notion that they are computer programs. In fact, cookies are simple pieces of data unable to perform any operation by themselves. In particular, they are neither spyware nor viruses, despite the detection of cookies from certain sites by many anti-spyware products.

You can change your website browser settings to disable or reject cookies; for more information and to learn how to disable them, please visit Please note, however, though most modern browsers allow users to decide whether to accept cookies, rejection makes some websites unusable. For example, shopping baskets implemented using cookies do not work if cookies are disabled. Disabling or rejecting cookies may impair the functionality of the website and may mean that you are not able to shop from

What is ’JavaScript’?

JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development.

The primary use of JavaScript is to write functions that are embedded in or included from HTML pages and interact with the Document Object Model (DOM) of the page. Some simple examples of this usage are:
* Opening or popping up a new window with programmatic control over the size, position and ’look’ of the new window (i.e. whether the menus, toolbars, etc. are visible).
* Validation of web form input values to make sure that they will be accepted before they are submitted to the server.
* Changing images as the mouse cursor moves over them: This effect is often used to draw the user’s attention to important links displayed as graphical elements.

Because JavaScript code can run locally in a user’s browser (rather than on a remote server), it can respond to user actions quickly, making an application feel more responsive. Furthermore, JavaScript code can detect user actions which HTML alone cannot.

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